Many people think that homosexuality means having sexual contact with individuals of the same sex. In fact, this definition is not complete. Homosexuality refers to “his original sexual, psychological, emotional and social interests are in people of the same sex, even though these interests may not be fully expressed.” A large number of theories try to explain how sexual orientation, especially homosexuality, arises. Over the years, people have done a lot of research, but there is still no exact scientific explanation. Nevertheless, we review the line of homosexuality research together, which has important practical significance for us to understand this group.
Research on biosocial psychological factors
Many researchers believe that the development of homosexuality is related to life events, parent type or personal psychological characteristics. Unpleasant heterosexual experiences or lack of the ability to attract the opposite sex are sometimes thought to cause a person to become or choose to be gay. It is a common belief that homosexuals are less attractive than others.
Psychoanalytic theory implies that both childhood experiences and relationships with parents are the reasons for homosexuality: Freud insisted that the relationship with father or mother is an important factor in homosexuality. He believes that in the “normal” development process, we all go through a “homosexual” stage. He believes that if boys have a bad relationship with their fathers and are very close to their mothers, they will be fixed at this homosexual stage; and if one Women admire Yinjing, so the same thing may happen to her. Although these patterns exist in some instances, it is a fact that many homosexuals do not fit this pattern—that is, their mothers are not so prominent, and their fathers are not emotionally distant from them. And at the same time, a large number of heterosexuals do grow in this widespread family model.
One research approach is to study the level of hormones in adults. Some researchers consider that hormones may cause homosexuality. However, there is no good controlled experimental study to find the difference between the hormone levels of heterosexual and homosexual adult men in the blood. And even if there are inherent differences, it is difficult to judge whether they are the cause or the result of sexual orientation. Due to social pressure, the stress and anxiety experienced by many homosexuals may themselves affect hormone levels. Many researchers believe that the level of hormones in adults has nothing to do with the cause of sexual orientation, because sexual orientation is established before adulthood.
Another research approach is to study the hormone levels before birth, which can change the masculine and feminine development of the fetal brain. Some researchers believe that hormone levels before birth can affect the formation of sexual orientation. Animal laboratory studies have confirmed that the use of hormones before birth can virilize female fetuses and feminize male fetuses. This makes animals of another sex appear social behaviors and courtship behaviors when they mature.
Studies have reported that the brain structures of gay men and heterosexual men are different, which may become the biological basis of the cause of sexual orientation. It is found that the anterior hypothalamic horn of homosexual men is half of that of heterosexual men, and the anterior hypothalamic horn is the part of the brain that can affect sexual behavior.
The third research clue is to suggest the possibility of genetic factors leading to homosexuality. The researchers studied three groups that were all male: identical twins, fraternal twins, and adopted brothers. It is found that when one of the brothers is homosexual, the proportion of the other is also homosexual in 52% of identical twins, 22% of fraternal twins, and 11% of adopted brothers. A similar study in women found the same pattern. These results prove that part of the cause of homosexuality may be caused by environmental factors, but the huge difference between the identical twin group and the other two groups strongly proves that the genetic composition can lead to the production of sexual orientation.
Evidence of the biological causes of homosexuality has led to some important arguments. If homosexuality is found to be based on biology, then the hypothesis that homosexuality is not born will be undermined, because something inherent in people’s biology is born with a person. Therefore, society may be more receptive to homosexuality. Those who believe that homosexuality is “natural” take a more positive and receptive attitude towards homosexuals than those who believe that homosexuality is a choice and acquisition. Also, whether homosexuality is caused by biology, people’s views are divided into two factions almost evenly. In a survey, 44% of the respondents thought that homosexuality was a matter of choice, while 43% thought it was something that people could not change.
If homosexuality is proved to be biologically based, what additional results will there be? One of them is that parents who blame their own parents or who are blamed by others for doing what they consider to be apostasy, get rid of them Guilt. If gender inconsistency is accepted on the basis of biology, then society’s expectations of gender role behavior may become more flexible. On the other hand, if homosexuality is shown to be caused by biological factors, and homosexuals are labeled as biologically “defects”, then homosexuality can be eliminated through abortion or bioengineering methods can be used to prevent homosexuality, or Changing homosexuality in the womb may be implemented.
From sin to sickness to normal
In the middle of the 20th century, there was a change in social attitudes towards homosexuality. The idea that homosexuals are sinners is to some extent replaced by the idea that they are “pathological.” Medical and psychologists have used many drastic treatments to try to cure the “disease” of homosexuality. In 1951, white matter resection (brain surgery to separate nerve fibers from the anterior lobe of the brain) was launched as a “treatment” for homosexuality. Psychotherapy, drugs, hormones, hypnosis, electric shock therapy and aversion therapy (given vomiting drugs or electric shocks while homosexual stimulation) have also been used.
Now, through decades of research, the notion that homosexuality is “pathological” has been overturned. The researchers studied and compared the social adaptability of non-pathological heterosexuals and homosexuals, and found that there was no significant difference between the two groups. Further research has repeatedly supported these findings. Someone concluded: “Those who ultimately compromise with homosexuality, do not regret their homosexuality, and can effectively play a role in society, do not have more psychological pressure than heterosexual men and women.”
Lifestyle and self-acceptance
It is currently believed that the lifestyle of homosexuals is as diverse as that of heterosexuals. Homosexuals exist at all levels of society. The only common feature of homosexuals is that they have emotional and sexual satisfaction needs for people of the same sex, and they have all experienced pressure from a social environment that is unacceptable to them.
Although homosexuals and heterosexuals have many similarities, and their lifestyles are also diverse, people still have certain fixed views of them, which may be in accordance with some inherent forms of homosexuals. Dressing has something to do with people. Sometimes the characteristics of homosexuals can be clearly identified.
For a specific individual, self-acceptance after being aware of their homosexuality is usually difficult, because the person concerned must overcome the inner resistance to homosexuality and the more or less unacceptance of homosexuality in society. Because of these difficulties, male homosexual teenagers are seven times more likely to attempt suicide than male heterosexual teenagers; however, teenage lesbians are only slightly more likely to attempt suicide than heterosexual girls. Loneliness, lack of self-esteem, and physical and verbal humiliation are often reasons for suicide attempts. For gay men and women adolescents, it is very helpful to find a supportive and unbiased adult to talk about. Of course, family support is also very valuable.
Our research is in line with international standards
Now, the American Psychiatric and Psychological Association no longer classifies homosexuality as a mental illness. In China, we participated in the formulation of the “Chinese Mental Disorder Classification and Diagnosis Criteria Third Edition”. We once went deep into the homosexual community to conduct related investigations and concluded that homosexuality as a sexual activity is not necessarily abnormal. If some homosexuals have felt anxiety, depression, or even pain during their personal sexual orientation or sexual development, or feel indecisive, and some hope to change to heterosexuality, then provide them with psychiatry and medical psychology. Service is necessary. Our approach is consistent with the understanding of the World Health Organization-in the “International Classification of Diseases (Tenth Edition)”, homosexuality is expressed as: among homosexuals, there are indeed non-harmonious homosexuals who need medical help.
We have followed up 51 homosexuals for more than one year, and 6 of them have other psychological problems due to homosexuality. A noteworthy phenomenon is that some people in the United States who were once homosexual have changed into heterosexuals with medical help from psychiatrists or clinical psychologists. They looked back on the state of homosexuality in the past and believed that the past was abnormal. Therefore, they opposed the removal of the name of homosexuality from the diagnostic criteria for mental illness.
At present, it is quite difficult for quality homosexuals to change their sexual orientation through medical, psychological treatment or other means. The more common practice for homosexuality is to help homosexuals accept their own sexual orientation, understand that homosexuals’ intelligence and abilities are not worse than heterosexuals, and can also realize self-worth and contribute to society. In addition, while accepting that they are homosexual, they must also accept the attitudes of many people in society towards homosexuality, because people are curious and incomprehensible about people who are different from themselves. The need to find belonging is a characteristic of human beings. For many homosexuals, it is necessary to arrange their lives. More and more professionals believe that homosexuality is not the same as “sexual psychological disorder” and “sexual perversion”. They no longer strive to change the sexual orientation of homosexuals, but strive to help them live and work.
In short, the phenomenon of homosexuality is an objective existence with unknown reasons. Homosexuality is not deliberately done by the parties. Homosexuals are not responsible for their own sexual orientation and have nothing to do with immorality or sin.